Wednesday, 8 April 2009

Early Tradition














Family Tree of King Arthur (Geoffrey's version)

The family tree of the House of Constantine, come from three early sources:-
Geoffrey of Monmouth ("Historia regum Britanniae", 1137), Wace ("Roman de Brut", 1155), and Layamon ("Brut", c. 1200).

Geoffrey's Historia was written in Latin, but the names I had used are the popular English.
The last two sources are adaptations of Geoffrey's Historia, where Wace wrote in French and Layamon in English.
Note that the early tradition of Arthur, there was no Lancelot, Perceval, and many others found in later Arthurian tradition.
Here, Arthur had a full sister name, Anna, which is different to most Arthurian literature. There is no Morgan le Fay, mentioned here. And also, Gawain and Mordred are brothers, and they are nephews of Arthur.
Since, Vortigern and Hengist played important roles, before Arthur's time, I had constructed a family tree for the two protagonists.














The family tree shows the family of Vortigern, and that of the Saxon leaders. The same sources were used from the previous family tree: Geoffrey, Wace and Layamon.

House of Arthur & Culhwch
The genealogy shown below, is a Welsh version of King Arthur's family. The names show here were found in the Welsh collection of tales and poems, found in mainly the Mabinogion. However, I had also used other sources such as from the Black Book of Carmarthen, the Book of Taliesin, and others.
I have used the Welsh names instead of the names we usually associated with the Arthurian legend.















According to a number of later Welsh texts, on both lines of Arthur's parents, Arthur was a descendant of two Welsh gods: Llyr and Bran, Llyr's son. I have not see these texts, but I thought I might mentioned them any if you are interested in finding out yourself. These manuscripts are: Bonedd y Arwyr, Mostyn MS 117, and two conflicting genealogies in Bonedd yr Arwr.
There are a few names I am not certain of.
In the Welsh Triads, Arthur was married to three queens, all of them were named Gwenhwyfar (Guinevere), but each had different fathers. None of the tales in the Mabinogion mentioned which was her father.
Custennin appeared as the shepherd in tale of Culhwch and Olwen, as Culhwch's uncle. Here, he was the father of the hero Goreu. In the Welsh romance, Gereint and Enid, Gereint (Erec) was the son of Erbin, who was the son of Custennin. I am not certain if they were the same Custennin, or two different figures with the same name.
http://omacl.org/Graal/source for old tradition

King Arthur was the son of Uther Pendragon and Igraine. Igraine was the wife to Duke Gorlois of Cornwall when she conceived Arthur. Through Merlin's magic, Uther was transformed to look exactly like her husband. Uther made love to Igraine. When Gorlois was killed, Uther immediately married Igraine.
According to Geoffrey, Uther and Igraine were parents of King Arthur and a daughter named Anna, who married King Lot of Orkney. Chretien de Troyes' introduces Morgan le Fay as the sister of King Arthur.
In Gerald of Wales Tour of Wales (1188), he has Morgan as Arthur's cousin.
Malory credits King Arthur with three half-sisters: Morgawse, Elaine (Blasine) and Morgan le Fay. Morgawse had married King Lot of Orkney, Elaine (Blasine) was married to King Nentres of Garlot, and Morgan was wife of King Urien of Gorre, brother of Lot.
Most souces do not ascribe any children to King Arthur and his wife Guinevere. But Chretien de Troyes' gives a son Lohot (or Loholt) fathered by King Arthur, but the mother being Lisanor. Lohot was one of the Knights of the Round Table. Lohot was also one of the knights captured by the lord of Dolorous Guard.
Malory, gives a son was named Borre to King Arthur with the mother named as Lionors. The similarity between the two women's names - Lisanor and Lionor, suggested that Lohot and Borre is the same person.
In Culhwch and Olwen (c. 1100), King Arthur was the father of Gwydre, possibly by Gwenhwyvar (Guinevere). Gwydre was killed by a wild boar. In the Welsh romance "Gereint and Enid", the story mentioned that King Arthur had a son named Amhar.
His most noteworthy "son" was Mordred. In the early chronicles like Geoffrey of Monmouth, Mordred was Arthur's nephew, because Mordred was the son of King Lot and Anna or Morgawse, the sister of Arthur. But by the Vulgate version, it was implied that Mordred was his son by Arthur's half-sister, Morgawse. In the Suite du Merlin Arthur had unwittingly slept with Morgawse, because he did not know that she was his half-sister. Some say that Morgan le Fay was Mordred's mother.
Source
Mabinogion & other Welsh sources
Father
Uthr Pendragon
Mother
Eigyr
Sister
Gwyar
Wife
Gwenhwyfar
Sons
lacheu, Gwydre, Amhar or Gwenhwyvar

Source
Historia regum Britanniae
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Father
Uther
Mother
Ygerne
Sister
Anna
Wife
Guinevere –

Source
Chretien de Troyes'romances
Father
Utherpendragon
Mother
Igerne
Sister
Morgan le Fay
Wife
Guinevere –


Source
Vulgate Cycle romances
Father
Uther
Mother
Ygraine
Igerne
Sister
Morgawse, Blasine, Brimesent,Morgan le Fay, unnamed,
Wife
Guenevere -
Sons
Loholt (by Lisanor)


Source
Le Morte d'ArthurSir Thomas Malory
Father
Uther
Mother
Igraine
Sister
Morgause, Elaine, Morgan le Fay
Wife
Guenivere -
Sons
Borre (by Lionors)